Frederick P. Brooks Jr., Computer Design Innovator, Dies at 91

Frederick P. Brooks Jr., whose revolutionary work in pc design and software program engineering helped form the sphere of pc science, died on Thursday at his residence in Chapel Hill, N.C. He was 91.

His demise was confirmed by his son, Roger, who mentioned Dr. Brooks had been in declining well being since having a stroke two years in the past.

Dr. Brooks had a wide-ranging profession that included creating the pc science division on the University of North Carolina and main influential analysis in pc graphics and digital actuality.

But he’s finest identified for being one of many technical leaders of IBM’s 360 pc undertaking within the Nineteen Sixties. At a time when smaller rivals like Burroughs, Univac and NCR have been making inroads, it was a massively bold enterprise. Fortune journal, in an article with the headline “IBM’s $5,000,000,000 Gamble,” described it as a “bet the company” enterprise.

Until the 360, every mannequin of pc had its personal bespoke {hardware} design. That required engineers to overtake their software program applications to run on each new machine that was launched.

But IBM promised to remove that expensive, repetitive labor with an method championed by Dr. Brooks, a younger engineering star on the firm, and some colleagues. In April 1964, IBM introduced the 360 as a household of six suitable computer systems. Programs written for one 360 mannequin might run on the others, with out the necessity to rewrite software program, as clients moved from smaller to bigger computer systems.

The shared design throughout a number of machines was described in a paper, written by Dr. Brooks and his colleagues Gene Amdahl and Gerrit Blaauw, titled “Architecture of the IBM System/360.”

“That was a breakthrough in computer architecture that Fred Brooks led,” Richard Sites, a pc designer who studied below Dr. Brooks, mentioned in an interview.

But there was an issue. The software program wanted to ship on the IBM promise of compatibility throughout machines and the aptitude to run a number of applications without delay was not prepared, because it proved to be a much more daunting problem than anticipated. Operating system software program is commonly described because the command and management system of a pc. The OS/360 was a forerunner of Microsoft’s Windows, Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android.

At the time IBM made the 360 announcement, Dr. Brooks was simply 33 and headed for academia. He had agreed to return to North Carolina, the place he grew up, and begin a pc science division at Chapel Hill. But Thomas Watson Jr., the president of IBM, requested him to remain on for one more 12 months to sort out the corporate’s software program troubles.

Dr. Brooks agreed, and ultimately the OS/360 issues have been sorted out. The 360 undertaking turned out to be an unlimited success, cementing the corporate’s dominance of the pc market into the Eighties.

“Fred Brooks was a brilliant scientist who changed computing,” Arvind Krishna, IBM’s chief government and himself a pc scientist, mentioned in an announcement. “We are indebted to him for his pioneering contributions to the industry.”

After founding the University of North Carolina’s pc science division, he served as its chairman for 20 years.

Dr. Brooks took the hard-earned classes from grappling with the OS/360 software program as grist for his ebook “The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering.” First revealed in 1975, it quickly grew to become acknowledged as a unusual basic, promoting briskly 12 months after 12 months and routinely cited as gospel by pc scientists.

Dr. Brooks’s ebook “The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering,” first revealed in 1975, grew to become acknowledged as a unusual basic, promoting briskly 12 months after 12 months and routinely cited as gospel by pc scientists.

The tone is witty and self-deprecating, with pithy quotes from Shakespeare and Sophocles and chapter titles like “Ten Pounds in a Five-Pound Sack” and “Hatching a Catastrophe.” There are sensible ideas alongside the best way. For instance: Organize engineers on massive software program tasks into small teams, which Dr. Brooks known as “surgical teams.”

The most well-known of his rules was what he known as Brooks’s regulation: “Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later.” Dr. Brooks himself acknowledged that he was “oversimplifying outrageously,” however he was exaggerating to make some extent.

It is commonly smarter to rethink issues, he urged, than so as to add extra folks. And in software program engineering, a occupation with components of artistry and creativity, employees aren’t interchangeable items of labor.

In the web period, some software program builders have urged that Brooks’s regulation now not applies. Large open-source software program tasks — so named as a result of the underlying “source” code is open for all to see — have armies of internet-connected engineers to identify flaws in code and suggest fixes. Still, even open-source tasks are sometimes ruled by a small group of people, extra surgical workforce than the knowledge of the group.

Frederick Phillips Brooks Jr. was born on April 19, 1931, in Durham, N.C., the eldest of three boys. His father was a doctor, and his mom, Octavia (Broome) Brooks, was a homemaker.

Dr. Brooks grew up in Greenville and majored in physics at Duke University earlier than occurring to graduate faculty at Harvard. There have been no pc science departments on the time, however computer systems have been turning into analysis instruments in physics, arithmetic and engineering departments.

Dr. Brooks obtained his Ph.D. in utilized arithmetic in 1956; his adviser was Howard Aiken, a physicist and pc pioneer. He was a instructing assistant for Kenneth Iverson, an early designer of programming languages, who taught a course on “automatic data processing.”

Industry in addition to academia was more and more adopting computer systems. Dr. Brooks had summer season jobs at Marathon Oil and North American Aviation, and at Bell Labs and IBM.

He additionally met his future spouse, Nancy Greenwood, at Harvard, the place she earned a grasp’s diploma in physics. They married two days after Harvard’s graduation ceremony. Then, Dr. Brooks recalled in an oral historical past interview for the Computer History Museum, they took off collectively to jobs at IBM.

During his IBM years, Dr. Brooks grew to become what his son described as “a convinced and committed Christian” after attending Bible research periods hosted by his colleague and fellow pc designer Dr. Blaauw. “I came to see that the intellectual difficulties I was having as a scientist with Christianity were secondary,” Dr. Brooks recalled within the Computer History Museum interview. He taught Sunday faculty for over 50 years at a Methodist church in Chapel Hill and served as a pacesetter and college adviser to Christian research and fellowship teams on the college.

In addition to his son Roger, Dr. Brooks is survived by his spouse; his brother, John Brooks; two extra kids, Kenneth Brooks and Barbara La Dine; 9 grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren.

Dr. Brooks collected many prizes for his achievements, together with the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 1985 and the Turing Award, typically known as the Nobel of pc science, in 1999.

The main prizes sometimes cited his work in pc design and software program engineering. But throughout his years at North Carolina, Dr. Brooks additionally turned to pc graphics and digital actuality, seeing it as an rising and necessary discipline. He led analysis efforts that consultants say included methods for quick and lifelike presentation of photographs and purposes for learning molecules in biology.

“The impact of his work in computer graphics was enormous,” mentioned Patrick Hanrahan, a professor at Stanford University and a fellow Turing Award winner. “Fred Brooks was a thought leader way ahead of his time.”

While his profession spanned a variety of pursuits, there was a typical theme, Henry Fuchs, a professor on the University of North Carolina and a longtime colleague, mentioned in an interview. Whether designing a brand new household of computer systems used throughout the financial system or serving to biologists discover molecules to develop new medication, Dr. Fuchs mentioned, Dr. Brooks noticed the function of pc scientists as “toolsmiths.”

“Fred’s view,” he mentioned, “was that computer scientists are mainly tool builders to help others do their jobs better.”

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